About the Coronation!

Di 23 Mei 2023 02:34 | Astrid Essed | 55 keer bekeken | 0 reacties | 0 x aanbevolen | Artikel voorlezen

The King stands and the Archbishop says:

''Our Majesty, the Church established by law, whose settlement you will swear to maintain, is committed to the true profession of the Gospel, and, in so doing, will seek to foster an environment in which people of all faiths and beliefs may live freely. The Coronation Oath has stood for centuries and is enshrined in law.

Are you willing to take the Oath?

The King replies

I am willing.

The King places his hand on the Bible, and the Archbishop administers the Oath

Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the Peoples of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, your other Realms and the Territories to any of them belonging or pertaining, according to their respective laws and customs?

The King replies

I solemnly promise so to do.

The Archbishop says

Will you to your power cause Law and Justice, in Mercy, to be executed in all your judgements?

The King replies

I will.

The King kneels at the Chair of Estate. The Archbishop says

Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel? Will you to the utmost of your power maintain in the United Kingdom the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law? Will you maintain and preserve inviolably the settlement of the Church of England, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, as by law established in England?

And will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of England, and to the Churches there committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges as by law do or shall appertain to them or any of them?

The King replies

All this I promise to do.

The King places his hand on the Bible and says

The things which I have here before promised, I will perform and keep. So help me God.

The King kisses the Bible. The Archbishop says

Your Majesty, are you willing to make, subscribe, and declare to the statutory Accession Declaration Oath?

The King replies

I am willing.

I Charles do solemnly and sincerely in the presence of God profess, testify, and declare that I am a faithful Protestant, and that I will, according to the true intent of the enactments which secure the Protestant succession to the Throne, uphold and maintain the said enactments to the best of my powers according to law.

The King signs copies of the Oaths, presented by the Lord Chamberlain,whilst the choir sings

Prevent us, O Lord, in all our doings with thy most gracious favour, and further us with thy continual help; that in all our works begun, continued, and ended in thee, we may glorify thy holy name, and finally by thy mercy obtain everlasting life; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

God of compassion and mercy whose Son was sent not to be served but to serve, give grace that I may find in thy service perfect freedom and in that freedom knowledge of thy truth. Grant that I may be a blessing to all thy children, of every faith and belief, that together we may discover the ways of gentleness and be led into the paths of peace; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The King returns to the Chair of Estate and sits.


On 6 May 2023, the Coronation of Charles III, King of the United Kingdom and
the Commonwealth Realms, took place. [1]
Actually, he acceded the throne on 8 september 2022, upon the death of his mother, Queen Elizabeth II [2]
At the age of 73, he became the oldest person to accede to the British throne, after having been the longest heir apparent and Prince of Wales in British history [3]
His coronation took place at Westminster Abbey, where traditionally
the English monarchs are crowned, [4]
Simultaneously, his wife, Queen Camilla, was also crowned [5],
as is usually the case [6]
What I love about this Coronation [and those before] are
the old traditions, which is logically, since the English kings
stand in an impressive tradition of more than thousand years!
The eldest Royal House I can recall is the House of Wessex, in
899 to begin with, under king Alfred the Great! [7]
Before the House of Wessex under Alfred the Great, there was the
''old'' House of Wessex, founded by Cerdic of the Gewisse [The West Saxon dynasty], but in those times England was not united, but
consisted of different kingdoms [8]'
[By the way, The House of Wessex was by times interrupted
by the House of Denmark, when England was under Danish control] [9]
It was under Alfred the Great, the first to call himself
''King of the Anglo Saxons [instead of just the West Saxons], that the first steps were
taken to unify England, which was completed by Alfred the Great's
descendants. [10] 
The last king from the House of Wessex was king Edward the Confessor [11]
I will refer to him later in this Coronation article, with respect to the 
St Edward's Crown''.......
You will see, o Readers.
And the present English monarchy descents from William the Conqueror,
the Duke of Normandy, who conquered England in the Battle
of Hastings in 1066, defeating king Harold II [brother in law
of Edward the Confessor], the last Anglo Saxon king [12]
FASCINATING, when you realize, that the Dutch Monarchy only
exists since 1813, being one of the youngest monarchies in
Europe! [13]
The Coronation Ceremony is firstly a spiritual and sacred one.
But also one of traditional symbols.
Sacred are of course the Oath and the Anointing with the Holy Oil:
ANOINTING THE OIL [Behind Curtains]
The Coronation Ceremony of King Charles III was, like those of
his predecessors, firstly a SACRED Ceremony, which is seen, not only as performed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, but in the Kings' Oath:
[The Archbishop]
''Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel? Will you to the utmost of your power maintain in the United Kingdom the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law?''
[The King]
''All this I promise to do''
[And the King, placing his hand on the Bible]
''The things which I have here before promised, I will perform and keep. So help me God.'' [14] 
Now this Holy Oath has everything to do with the fact, that
king Charles III is Head of the Anglican Church [the Church of England] [15], which is tradition since king Henry VIII, who broke with thePope and subsequently the old Catholic Church [called 
''Holy Church'' in Medieval England] [16] 
Yet apart from that breach with the Holy Church, Coronation Ceremonies were always sacred:
See a part from the Oath that king Edward II, one of the forefathers
of king Charles III, took at his Coronation in 1308:
[English translation from the original French text]
''Sire, will you in all your judgments, so far as in you lies, preserve to God and Holy Church, and to the people and clergy, entire peace and concord before God?
[Edward II]
 I will preserve them.
Oaths, based on the Church of England or on the Catholic Holy Church or not, those Sacred Customs were all based on the concept of
Sacred Kingship, or in Western history: the concept of the
Divine Right of Kings [18], which also has a pre Christian tradition [19] and is a universal concept from Old Historian Times. [20]
Because in old Times [and perhaps the divine right of kings
is based upon that] there was that concept of a king, who was
also high priest [21]
The English Coronation Ceremonies are ancient, very ancient,
and main elements of the coronation service and the earliest form of oath can be traced to the ceremony devised by Saint Dunstan for King Edgar's coronation in 973 AD at Bath Abbey.
It drew on ceremonies used by the kings of the Franks and those used in the ordination of bishops.[22]
But that was then.
Through the centuries, there were different versions of coronation
services [23], but untill the Reformation, based on catholic traditions [24]
With the Reformation, there were changes [25], but some things,
especially regarding the Place of Coronation, the Holy Oil Anointing,
the Crown, the Chair and other traditions, remained largely unchanged.
I refer to those in a moment, a five minutes reading!
The anointing is the most sacred part of the coronation ceremony, and takes place before the crowning.
The Archbishop pours holy oil from the Ampulla (or vessel) into the spoon, and anoints the sovereign on the hands, breast and head [26]
And this Anointing Tradition is based on
the Old Days, especially Biblical Ones!
I refer to the Old Testimony, Book ''Kings''
and quote about the Coronation of King Salomon:
''Then Zadok the priest took a horn of 
oil from the tabernacle and anointed Solomon. And they blew the horn, and all the people said, “Long live King Solomon!”
[Book ''Kings'' 1:39] [27]
Anointing was one of the medieval holy sacraments and it emphasised the spiritual status of the sovereign. Until the seventeenth century the sovereign was considered to be appointed directly by God and this was confirmed by the ceremony of anointing. Although the monarch is no longer considered divine in the same way, the ceremony of Coronation also confirms the monarch as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. [28]
And since the anointing is considered as that holy
and sacred, it is NOT for others to see, but hidden for public view. 
To hide the anointing for public, king Charles III's
mother, Queen Elizabeth II, used a canopy, while
king Charles III kicked things up a notch with a full-blown screen [29]
Like I said before, the Coronation Ceremony
is firstly a sacred and religious One and emphasizing
the Divine Right of Kings [although that Divine Right Concept is ancient
and historical], the anointing has to be done in private!
See for important facts and events about the Coronation Ceremonies of English kings since the
Anglo Saxon king Edgar [Reign, 959-975] [30], under note 31!
Exciting, isn't it!
Although the Anointing Ceremony of king Charles III
was largerly the same as his predecessors, there were some changes, especially in the use of the Anointing
The holy oil that was traditionally used for coronations past contained civet oil, from the glands of the small mammals, and ambergris from whale intestines. The formula was used at Queen Elizabeth’s ceremony and is hundreds of years old. [32]
However, the holy oil that will be used at Charles’ coronation is vegan-friendly, in order to reflect modern anti-animal cruelty sentiments. It is made with olive oil, pressed just outside Bethlehem, and perfumed with essential oils such as sesame, rose, jasmine, cinnamon, neroli, benzoin and amber and orange blossom. [33]
A 21st Century Monarch, Changed times
But the Essentials of the Coronation are still maintained, despite different personal touchs of
kings throughout the centuries [and sometimes memorable things happened at Coronations] [34] and the change from
the old Holy Church to the present, protestant Church of England. [35]
Interesting historical tradition is, that since
the ancestor of all English kings [after his conquest of
England in 1066], William the Conqueror, all
English kings have been crowned at Westminster
Abbey [36] [although according to some sources, the last
Anglo Saxon king, Harold II, who was defeated by
William the Conqueror, was also crowned at Westminster Abbey [37]
Although...[and forgive me Readers, that my historical
heart takes it over again....] there were apart crowning ceremonies....
Because king Henry III, father of the more famous king Edward I and [I mean king Henry III] the son of king John I [also
mentioned ''Lackland'', a brother of king
Richard Coeur de Lion and a greatgreatgrandson
of William the Conqueror] [38], that king Henry III was crowned twice!
Firstly at Gloucester Cathedral in 1216 and only in 122o at Westminster Abbey! [39]
When Henry's father, king John died [Henry was only nine years old], there was still
a rising of noblemen against his father's government, ''the War with the Barons'', which by the way resulted in the Magna Charta [40]
And to make things worse, there was a French invasion
See for more information, note 41
So Henry III was hastily crowned in Gloucester Cathedral in 1216, since at that moment the French occupied London and after more stable times, in 122o
in Westminster Abbey! [42]
And to make it more fascinating than it already was.....
When king Henry had been crowned for the first time,
Because during the Baron's War the Crown had been lost, probably lost as king John crossed one
of the tidal estuaries which empties into the Walsh,
being sucked in by quicksand and whirpools...[43]
So at his first Coronation, Henry had no Crown and
therefore was crowned with a golden Corolla
[headdress] [44], belonging to his mother Isabella of
Angouleme! [45]
Interesting, isn't it?
We'll stay in the king Henry III times awhile!
 Because when he was crowned at the second time,
and now in Westminster Abbey [See above], he needed
a real crown, since his father John's crown was lost during the Baron's War.
And since king Henry III was a great admirer of Edward the Confessor, one of the last Anglo Saxon kings [the direct predecessor of King Harold, the king who was defeated by William the Conqueror in 1066], he called
the crown, that was made for him ''St Edward's Crown''
According to some sources it really WAS the crown
of Edward the Confessor, but that is open to
discussion I think [47]
HOWEVER, the crown with which king Charles III is
crowned, is called ''St Edward's Crown, but not the
original, since a new Crown was made for king Charles II, since after the deposition and execution
of his father King Charles I most of the British Crown
Jewels, the Crown included, were destroyed, broken up
or sold off. [48]
So the Crown, that is used by the Coronation
of king Charles III is the crown of king Charles II 
from the 17th Century! [49]
What I found really exciting to learn was this:
Henry IV, who by the way usurped the throne
from his cousin Richard II [50] which eventually would cause the Wars of the Roses [51], was the first
English king, who at his Coronation made a speech
in English! [52]
Before this, the official language of the court was French, ever since William I conquered England [53]
What makes the Coronation so fascinating, are,
as I said before, the ancient traditions.
Like the use of the Coronation Spoon, dated from the 12th century and probably made for either king
Henry II or his son king Richard Coeur de Lion
[respectively the father and brother of king John, also
named ''Lackland'', from whom all present English
kings descent] 
It is also the only piece of royal goldsmiths' work to survive from the 12th century! [54]
So unique!
The spoon is first recorded in 1349 as preserved among St Edward's Regalia in Westminster Abbey. Already at this date it is described as a spoon of 'antique forme' [55]
About the role of the Coronation Spoon:
The Archbishop pours holy oil from the Ampulla (or vessel) [the ampulla was made for the
Coronation of king Charles II] into the spoon, and anoints the sovereign on the hands, breast and head. [56]
Interesting is, that the Spoon may originally have been used for mixing wine and water in a chalice, but it was certainly used for anointing the sovereign during the coronation of James I in 1603, son of the executed Mary, Queen of Scots, successor
of Queen Elizabeth I and the first Sovereign from the House of
Stuart and a unified England and Scotland, and at every subsequent coronation. [57]
Also a very ancient and fascinating symbol
is the 700 years old Coronation Chair!
The Coronation Chair was made by order of Edward I [58] to enclose the famous Stone of Scone [59], which he brought [stole, remark bij Astrid Essed see note 60]  from Scotland to the Abbey in 1296, where he placed it in the care of the Abbot of Westminster.
The Stone of Scone had been used by Scottish kings for centuries to sit upon when they were crowned! [61]
The Chair has been in use at the coronation ceremony since 1308 although opinion is divided as to when it was actually used for the crowning, but this was certainly the case from 1399 when
Henry IV was crowned in the Chair. [62]
And after king Henry IV, nearly all English kings were crowned
in that Chair [63] 
Just fascinating, when you think that the present king Charles III is crowned in a Chair, that his ancestor king Edward I has ordered to make at the beginning of the 14th century! [64]
I described some fascinating symbols and aspects of
the Coronation, which is [see above] a Sacred Ceremony
See about yet more details, note 65
However, the last fascinating aspect I want to share with you,
o Readers, is ....''The King's Champion!''....... which is a
typically Medieval symbol! [66]
As far as my investigation reaches, King's Champion
traditions stems from William the Conqueror, that Duke of Normandy, who conquered England in 1066 and laid the foundation of the present British Monarchy [all subsequent kings
are his descendants] [67]
This is how it went and how the King's Champion tradition 
took shape:
When William, the Conqueror  seized the English throne in 1066, he asked his friend Robert Marmion to act as his Champion. Marmion’s role was to literally throw down the gauntlet, openly challenging anyone doubting the new king’s legitimacy, to prove their case through armed combat. [68]
This was not a formality or a mere ceremony in the Middle Ages, but,
given the violent times then, a real Danger......
To make a long story short, out of gratitude for risking his life, Marmion was given an estate at Scrivelsby, in
The grant for this sets out that:
''The manor of Scrivelsby is holden … the service of finding on the day of Coronation, an armed knight who shall prove by his body, if need be, that the King is true and rightful heir to the kingdom.” [69]
Interesting is, that over the centuries, not only
the tradition of ''The King's Champion'' survived, but
that the role of King's Champion remained with
Marmion's descendants, who, since 1350, have been
the Dymoke Family [70]
Their family motto is the Latin phrase ''Pro Rege Dimico''
a play on their name, implying ''I contend for the King'' [71] 
See under note 72 the role of the Dymoke Family at the
Coronation of King Edward IV [during the Wars of the Roses, with the Astrid Essed remark, that the Plantagenet
Branch of the House of Edward IV, the House of York,
had a superior claim to the English throne [73]
I already referred to the violent ancient times in which
the role of the King's Champion was not
just a ceremony.
The last time however, the King's Champion really
performed the ancient role of throwing down the gauntlet
was at the coronation of King George IV! [74]
We are living in modern times now and Francis Dymoke won’t ride into King Charles III’s coronation on horseback and challenge any pretender to the throne to single combat as his ancestor did in 1066, but he will carry the Royal Standard into Westminster Abbey. [75]
Dymoke, a 67-year-old farmer from eastern England, will be the King’s Champion at the coronation, fulfilling a role performed by members of his family since William the Conqueror was crowned nearly 1,000 years ago......
An old tradition, anyway, although not so ''romantic'' anymore
like in the ancient times......
Although I like Dymoke's comment on his ceremonial
role as ''King's Champion''
''“This is the one moment in my life that really matters,” ,
as he had told the Daily Telegraph [76]
Apart from the modern times we live in, one of
the reasons the King's Champion doesn't fullfill his
original role is this:
The King’s Champion originally rode into the coronation banquet on horseback, threw down a gauntlet and challenged anyone who doubted the king or queen’s right to rule.
there hasn’t been a coronation banquet since 1821, so Champions now perform other roles, usually bearing a flag or standard, the palace said. [77]
You and I, readers, have watched the Coronation of
the new English king, Charles III [78], followed
the symbols and traditions.
Travelled through the Ages in which the Coronations
took shape, with the fascinating history of the Crown
Jewels, the 12th century Coronation Spoon, the 700
years old Coronation Chair, the St Edward's Crown,
the King's Champion, all those ancient and
meaningful traditions, from the Middle Ages untill
Modern Times.
Much is changed, yet the tradition and the Bond with History remains.
I will end with the words, king Charles III uttered at his Coronation:
''I come not to be served, but to serve'' [79]
Readers, it was nice to travel with you to history again
and....end in those modern times!
Hope you enjoyed it [I CERTAINLY DID!]
See to my next article
Then I travel with you to the Middle Ages again
The Time of the Wars of the Roses!
My next article will be about Richard Neville, the 16th Earl of Warwick, the Kingmaker! [80]
See you then

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