THE MOORISH RULE IN MEDIEVAL SPAIN/HOW THE MOORS BROUGHT
CIVILIZATION TO EUROPE
WHY POSTING THIS ARTICLE HERE:
This is something new, coming from me!
An article about the contributions of the Moors to
I think it is important as a counterweight [tegenwicht]
against 21 century Islamophobia!
Not only a historical article in English, but
about a specific period in
the history of the Middle Ages, the Moorish rule in Medieval Spain.
Why posting it here:
Because still there is a neglect of the great Moorish influence and
civilization, not only by Spanish historians, but also in Europe
Few people know for example, that without the Moorish conquest of
Spain, the Renaissance probably not should have taken place.
Did you know, that sciences like Algebra, chemistry, astronomy, etc
derived from the Arab [Greek] civilization.
That you probably should not brush your teeth with toothpaste,
were not for the advancement of the Moors in Europe?
And that there was an English King, who had considered to
convert to Islam in exchange for military aid against
Read further.....if history and knowledge matters to you.....
FOLLOWING:THE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL SPAIN/AL-ANDALUSDear Readers,A silly remark of author and historianKathryn Warner [EdwardthesecondBlogspot]gives me the opportunity to takeyou on a travel to the past.I have done it before.To the Medieval English period of dynastic struggle,the Wars of the Roses [1455-1485], as some remarks about the Medieval King Edward II, whose tragic and strong friendship for men, eventuallyled to his downfall [1284-1327, ruled England from 1307 until 1327]https://www.astridessed.nl/kin g-edward-ii-the-tragic-king/But this time I travel with you to Moorish ruled Spain in the Middle Ages.Come with me..........About Kathryn Warner:As I wrote above:Direct cause for my travel to the Moorish rule inal-Andalus [Medieval Spain]:My comments on an article of Kathryn Warner, historian and authorof ''Edward II, the Unconventional King'' and [Edward II's wife]Isabella of France, the Rebel Queen.[She is also known as blogger of''EdwardthesecondBlogspot.com, where intersting facts about thelife and reign of King Edward II are to be found.]Now Warner is a tough scientific investigator and has a great factualknowledge about the first half of the fourtheenth century English history,but much weaker in her interpretations and some assumptions.Therefore I've criticized her recently on her blog, which she deleted.See my earlier comment:https://www.astridessed.nl/the -she-wolf-of-france-by-maurice -druonreaction-on-the-comments -of-kathryn-warneredwardthesec ondblogspot/Of course she has the liberty to delete my reaction, or notplace it at all, eventhough it is a bit silly,in those Internet times.Moreover I expect from a scholar, not to be afraid for well argumentedcritics.But that's her business.I wonder, whether she publishes my new [underlying] comment on her blogor not, but that's not important.More important is to enrich my readers, you, with a very interestingaspect of history, which is often neglected:The great influence of the Moorish rule in Europe, especiallyon Spain and the development of the Renaissance.Recommended:The documentary of Bettany Hughes''When the Moors ruled in Europe'' See by the way my comment on Warner's remarks right under this article.ATHE ETHNIC/DNA MOORISH INFLUENCE ON SPAINWARNERS COMMENTS/HER BLOG:''EDWARD II: BOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGE DEATHOF EDWARD IISEEhttp://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/06/book-review-isabe lla-and-strange-death.htmlIn this post on her blog, Warner gives a book review of PaulDogerty's book [ Dogerty is a famous historian and writer] ''Isabella and the strange death of Edward II'' I didn't read the book, so I can't judge all the comments Warner made,although some [which I can judje without reading the book, due tomy historical knowlegde] certainly make sense.But she made one silly remark, which was serious enough to becriticized!She wrote:'The chroniclers attest to her loveliness, to her beautiful blonde hair, which she inherited from her father, Philip le Bel, and her slightly arabic [sic] features from her mother Johanna of Navarre''...... 3) The colour of Isabella's hair is not stated anywhere; neither are her 'slightly arabic', written with a small 'a' for some weird reason, features, whatever 'slightly Arabic features' may be and how they came to exist in a woman, Joan of Navarre, who was of mostly French and northern European, partly Spanish, origin. '' ''So the mother of Isabella of France [Isabella of France was the daughter of the French KingPhilip IV, wife of the English King Edward II and mother of King Edward III] , called Joan of Navarre , was partly of Spanish origin and could not have had Arabic features?In the 14th century?COMPLETE NONSENSE!Because as you may know, the Moors [Berbers/Arabs] ruled inSpain from 711 untill 1492.Over nearly the whole of Spain in 720 .Then little by little they were droven back, first under leadership ofthe one surviving [later there were more to come]christian Kingdom of Asturias. But still controlling the major part of Spain , during the dynasty of the Umayyad, which ruled nearly 300 years in Al Andalus[name for Moorish-muslim Spain], from 756 untill 1031,bringing al Andalus a great civilization, wealth and intellectual knowledge. To be explained:The Umayyad dynasty was divided in the period of the Emirate of Cordoba,from 756-929, and the Caliphate of Cordoba, 929-1031, but yet thesame dynasty After which the Moorish Kingdom fragmented in little Kingdoms [also called''Taifa Kingdoms''] , which foughtagainst each other and the northern christian forces , untill the defeat of Granada, in 1492 , which completed the reconquista. SO:The Moors ruled over Spain LONGER THAN 700 YEARS and there wouldnot have been any mixture between them and the original Visigothicpopulation?NONSENSE!Because that's what Warner is impying.What a nearly stupid remark for a medieval historian!See my comments on Warner's remarks under my piece, beforethe NotesBTHE ETHNIC/DNA MOORISH INFLUENCE ON SPAININTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIANDYNASTIES, AND OTHER SOCIAL CLASSESThere are proofs of the silliness of Warner's remarks:See what scientists say:
AND''In terms of paternal Y-Chromosome DNA, recent studies coincide in that Iberia has the greatest presence of the typically Northwest African Y-chromosome haplotype marker E-M81 in Europe. as well as Haplotype Va. Estimates of Y-Chromosome ancestry vary, with a 2008 study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics using 1140 samples from throughout the Iberian peninsula, giving a proportion of 10.6% North African ancestry. A similar 2009 study of Y-chromosome with 659 samples from Portugal, 680 from Northern Spain, 37 samples from Andalusia, 915 samples from mainland Italy, and 93 samples from Sicily found significally higher levels of North African male ancestry in Spain, Sicily and Portugal (7.7%, 7.1% and 7.5% respectively) than in Italy (1.7%).'' Another proof is the Arab origins of some of the Spanish Kings:For example, the second wife of the Spanish King Fruela II of Asturias,was Urraca bint [daughter of] Abd Allah.She was the daughter of the governor of Tuleda, member of theBanu Qasi, a Mullawad [mixture of Berber, Arab and Iberian origin] Hispano dynasty. Two centuries later, there was a Queen Uracca of Leon, appartenly from darkcomplexion, mother of King Alphonso VII, who showeda slightly coloured compexion, inherited of his mother of course. AND CREME ON THE CAKE!This coloured Uracca of Leon [and Castile] was a far ancestor of Queen IsabellaI of Castile, who would defeat thelast Moorish Kingdom,the Kingdom of Granada in 1492........ See the list of Castilian momarchs. I have checked, whether the line of descent, from Uracca to Isabella,was valid! Control for yourself! So coming to women of Spanish origin and Moorish [Arab]descent.See the foolishness of the remark of Kathryn Warner about Isabella ofFranceI will repeat it, again for you to catch up with the direct cause I wrote this piece:''The colour of Isabella's hair is not stated anywhere; neither are her 'slightly arabic', written with a small 'a' for some weird reason, features, whatever 'slightly Arabic features' may be and how they came to exist in a woman, Joan of Navarre, who was of mostly French and northern European, partly Spanish, origin. '' SO:There WAS admixture and intermarriage between Muslimand Christian dynasties, as well there was admixture and intermarriagebetween nobility and commoners.Also Berber [and Arab] military commanders married christianSpanish women.Mostly it were Berber-Arab men, who married christian-Spanishwomen.But it happened also, that christian-Spanish men marriedArab[Berber] women. This intermarriage was between kings [emirs], nobility and commoners. An example of the marriage of a Moorish woman in a christian royaldynasty I already mentioned:Uracca [NOT of course Queen Uracca of Castile of Leon],the wife of the Spanish King Fruela II of Asturias.She was the daughter of the governor of Tuleda, member of theBanu Qasi, a Mullawad [mixture of Berber, Arab and Iberian origin] Hispano dynasty. However, an example of Spanish descent in the Moorish royal dynasty wasKing Abd-al Rahman III, a king fromthe dynasty of the Ummayad , who proclaimed himselfas Caliph of Cordoba .He was the grandson of Emir Abdullah ibn [son of] Muhammad al Umawi .The father of Abd-al-Rahman III [who was no Emir, Abd-al-Rahman was thesuccessor of his grandfather] was Muhammad, and his mother a christianslave girl and concubine, Muzna or Muzayna. [28, Wikipedia] His paternal grandmother was also a Christian, but of roytalblood, the royal infanta [princess] Onneca Fortunez, daughterof king Fortun Garces of Pamplona, who was made captive. Abd-al-Rahman III was described as:having''.. white skin, blue eyes and attractive face; good looking, although somewhat sturdy and stout''I think this is enough proof for the admicture of African DNA in theSpanish-Iberian [Iberian, a term used for Spanish in the Middle Ages],as the follishness of the remarks of Kathryn Warner.As a historian, she should know better.BIWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE/[SPAIN]/HISTORY/THE CIVILIZATION THEY BROUGHT TOEUROPEHISTORY/CONQUEST/CONSOLIDATION OF POWERFirst:For the period of the Moorish rule, I refer to Spain as [post]Visigothic Spain.But in historical literature, Spain is often called''The Iberian peninsula'' also.Second:Readers, realize, that when I write about Spain, conqueredby the Moors, it also consists Portugal!Third:The Moorish conquest of Spain was not just an action ofBerber troops, but ordered and orchestrated by the great MuslimArab Caliphate, under the ruling Umayyad dynasty, which stretched,at the time of the conquest of Spain, from Asia [the Indusriver in India], Persia, the Middle East [the former Byzantine Empire,Syria, Jordan, Libanon], till the whole of North Africa. Further Readers, it is important for you to realize, that through thewhole period of the Moorish rule, christians lived in MoorishKingdoms, as Moors lived in christian kingdoms.That happened generally in relative peace.Many christians took over the Arab language and cultureand converted to Islam and there are no signs, thatthere was any pressure in such conversion. CORDOBA, CAPITAL CITY OF AL ANDALUSThe intermarriage and admixture with the Spanish [Iberian, postVisigoths]is interesting , but predictable, because of their 700 years rule.Far more interesting is the civilization, the intellectual knowledge,the art they brought to Europe.First a brief historyMoorish-muslim Spain was called by the Moors [Berbers and Arabs]''Al Andalus'', which means ''the land of theVandals'' [Vandals were referred to the Visigoths, the population of Spain,conquered by the Berber military forces] Capital city of al-Andalus was Cordoba [since 717] , that was to become a center of great intellectual knowledge,with a famous University and 70 libraries, visited by scholars accrosswhole Europe. The Moorish rulers of Andalus were granted the rank of Emir by theUmayyad Caliph Al-Walid I in Damascus , on whose orders Tariq ibnZayid conquered Spain [al-Andalus] with 7000 Berber military forces. Later more about the relationship with Damascus.So Berber forces beat the last Visigoth king Later, commander Tariq was joined by Musa bin Nusayr, general and governor underEmir Walid I, who landed in Spain with an army of 18,000 Berbers and ArabsIt took the Moors only four years to conquer Spain, probably due to thefact, that the Visigothic realm was already desintegrating. INTERESTING FACT:Gibraltar is called after commander Tariq, because it is theSpanish derivation of the Arabic name ''Jabal Tariq'' [mountain ofTariq] BATTLE OF TOURS [POITIERS]/TURNING POINT OF THEMOORISH EMPIRE IN EUROPEBut the Moors advanced!They marched through Francia [the pre Carolingian France] and occupying half of France , were defeated by Charles Martel,major domus  of the Merovingian king  and the de facto ruler, as the father of the first Carolingian king Pepin the Short and grandfather of Charlemagne That decisive battle was the Battle of Tours  [formerly calledthe Battle of Poitiers].It is often seen as a turning point of history and it was commonly assumed,that were the Moorish troops succesful, they could have easily crossedover the channel and conquered and converse England. IIWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE/STRIKING FACTSTHE CONVERSION OF JOHN LACKLAND, KING OF ENGLAND,TO THE ISLAM?About 370 years after the battle of Tours, there was a certain moment, that England could have turned in an Islamic State!Yes, at first it seemed unbelievable to me, but according to somesources, the English King John Lackland , brother and successorto Crusade King Richard I [Lion Heart] , should have considered conversionto the Islam. Background was a serious conflict with Pope Innocvent III, which endedin an interdict of England , as the excommunication of John Lackland. To save himself from this dangerous situation [an interdict and excommunicationwould eventually lead to chaos in the country and isolation from the otherEuropean christian countries], in desperation, King John sent envoys toal-Nasir, asking for help.In return, John offered to convert to Islam and turn England into a MuslimState.Caliph Nasir was said to be disgusted by John;s ''groveling plea'' and sent the envoys away. Is it historically true or not?That's not certain, but it is interesting to speculate:What if..........IIIWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPE/THE MOORISH CONSOLIDATION OF POWERIN SPAINTHE COMING OF THE UMAYYAD DYNASTY OF CORDOBAI wrote it before:The invasion of Spain, Medieval Hispania [or Iberia]  and Francia  was led bythe Umayyad dynasty (Arabic: ??? ???? ban? umayya / ???????? al-umawiyy?n also "Umawi") , the first dynasty of caliphs [civil and religious rulers] after the reign of the Rashidun caliphs  ended. The Umayyad Caliphate, at the time of the Battle of Tours, was perhaps the world's foremost military power. Great expansion of the Caliphate occurred under the reign of the Umayyads.Muslim armies pushed east across Persia and west across North Africa through the late 7th century. From 711 untill 762, with the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty withAbd-al-rahman as the first Emir, it was a time of conquest [of Spain]military expansion in France and fighting for power. THE UMMAYAD EMIRATE/THE COMINGOF ABD-AL-RAHMAN/A SUCCES STORYAnd then came Abd-al-Rahman, who became Abd-al-Rahman I:He had come a long way, from Syria, via North Africa and was a member of theDamascus royal dynasty, the Umayyad. His story is fascinating, but I can't tell it without a littleexplanation of the political situation, as the relations betweenAl-Andalus and the Umayyad.BACKGROUND OF ABD-AL-RAHMAN/THE DAMASCUS UMAYYADCALIPHATETo understand the story of Abd-al-Rahman I is to understandthe close ties between al-Andalus and the great muslim Empire,then ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, to which Abd-al-Rahman belonged.As told before, The Umayyad stretched from the territories in the east untill Persia, inthe Middle East, the greatest part of the Byzantine Empire and North Africa, from which al-Andalus was conquered , under the order ofthe Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I in Damascus. SO IN FACT, AL-ANDALUS WAS PART OF THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE,and the al-Andalus rulers were bound to pay respect to the Ummayad caliphs.The populations of the conquered territories, as well by the predecessing Rashidun Caliphatesee below], as the Umayyads, stretching from Persia untill North Africa, were conversed to Islam.CALIPHATESThere were a number of Arab Caliphates [better said ''Muslim'', because later Caliphates were not Arab], , with the Rashidun Caliphate to begin with The Rashidun Caliphate, which started after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, founder of the Islam,  was the first Caliphate, an impressive Empire [to usethat word for a while], which stretched untill Persia [Iran],in the North, Byzantine Syria, Anatolia [later Turkey], the otherMiddle Eastern countries and in the West, a great part of North Africa. The period we are interested in, however, is the second Caliphate,the Umayyad Caliphate , the original royal dynasty of Abd-al-Rahman..The main power base of the Ummayad Caliphate was in Syria, itscapital was Damascus, but shortly, from 744 untill the fall of theUmayyads in 750, the capital city was Harran, a city in UpperMesopotamia [northwestern of Iraq and the southeastern Turkey]  Under the Ummayyad Caliphate whole North Africa was conquered and now it was really an Empire.  SO:The Umayyad Caliphate, at the time of the Battle of Tours [732,when the Moors were beaten by Charles Martel, grandfather of Charlemagne], was perhaps the world's foremost military power! ABD-AL-RAHMAN AND THE FALL OF THE DAMASCUS UMAYYADCALIPHATEABD-AL-RAHMAN I/FLIGHT FROM DAMASCUS AND EXILE YEARS INNORTH-AFRICAAfter the succesful uprising of the Abbasids against the UmmayadCaliphs, nearly the whole Ummayad royal family was massacred. Needless to say, that the Abbasides became the new ruling dynasty,the Abassid Caliphate But Abd-al-Rahman, [grandson of Caliph HISHAM IBN ABD AL-MALIK[passed on in 743] , who was on the death list too, managed to escape. Maybe because his mother was a Berber woman [concubine ofhis father], he fled to North-Africa, together with his brother, son andsome other relatives. After nearly escaping an assissination from an Abbasid death squad,by which he lost his brother , Abd-al-Rahman and his Greek freedman,Bedr, reached modern-day Morocco, not after many adventures  [before, he had put his son into safety]From Marocco he went to al-Andalus, to establish the Umayyad dynasty, fromwhich he became the first Emir. BEFORE BECOMING ABD-AL-RAHMAN I/IN AL-ANDALUS/FIGHTING FOR POWERHe landed in al-Andalus in 755, probably in Malaga,where the conquering Moorswere involved in a power struggle between Berbers and Arabs.Upon landing, Abd al-Rahman was greeted by old Umayyad clients Abu Uthman and Ibn Khalid and an escort of 300 cavalry. During his brief time in Malaga, he was able to amass local support quickly. Waves of people made their way to Málaga to pay respect to the prince they thought was dead. Interesting reception indeed!To make a long story short.After a fight for power, during which he won growing supportersover, he succeeded, won the battles, and proclaimed himself Emir [andwas reunited with his son]. ABD-AL-RAHMAN ITHE ABBASSIDS/AGAINBut some things never change.After their assassination attempts, again, the Abbassids were in action!Now to send an army to al-Andalus, which they considered as a partof their bloody founded Caliphate.But Abd-Al-Rahman I beat them in 763. ABBASID-CAROLINGIAN ALLIANCEBut the Abbasids believed in the formula:KEEP TRYING......So, some small pro Abbasid rulers in Northern Spain closeda military alliance with the Carolingian King Charlemagne to defeatAbd-al-Rahman I.Which came to nothing. This alliance would last untill the first half of the 9th century...Complicated world......ABD-AL-RAHMAN IRELATION WITH THE ABBASID DYNASTYIt's not hard to imagine, how the relation between Emir Abd-al-RahmanI and the Abbasid Caliphate was.Bad of course, in so far there WAS a relationship!After all, they massacred nearly his whole family, the Umayyads,they tried to kill him on his flight and sent an army to defeathim, when establishing his power in al-Andalus!A Muslim ruler, Abd-al-Raham Ibn Habib al-Fihri , who ruledbefore the coming of Abd-al-Rahman I and later was in conflict withhim, banished the name of the Abbasid caliph from the Friday prayers. I can imagine, that Abd-al-Rahman I maintained that banishment!After all, praying for a ruler means acknowledgment of his authority.You can also ask the question, why he didn't denouncethe Abbadid Caliphate by proclaiming himself caliph[being the family survivor of the former, overthrown Caliphate], ashis descendant, Abd-al-Rahman III, eventually did Likely Abd-Al-Rahman I didn't, because he had to consolidate his power in al-Andalus, where he faced several uprisings. Probably, we'll never know.....But what we DO know is that he planned to wage war onthe Abbasid Caliphate, very likely also to revengethe massacre of his family. But due to domestic problems and the unrest with which he had to deal,it never took place.IVWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPETHE CIVILIZATION THEY BROUGHT TO EUROPETHE WORLD ABD-AL-RAHMAN I BUILDAND THEN NOW, WHAT'S HIGLY UNDERESTIMATED INEUROPEAN HISTORY, BUT NOT IN MEDIEVAL SOURCES:The civilization the Moors brought to Europe:READERS!Did you know:That you would probably still write with the complicated Roman ciphers ,when the Moors didn't invade Visigothic Spain?That likely the Renaissance didn't take place in Europe, or far later? I deal with that later.First the propsperity and civilization Abd-al-Rahman I brought to Spain:He rebuilt the city of Cordoba, turning it to a wealthy, highlycultured city.At the time of his reign, there were 100 000 inhabitants, there wasstreet lighting [unique in Europe], houses with runningwater, there were 70 librariesand 300 public baths! Cordoba was the largest settlement in Europe! Because of his royal position [prince of the massacred Umayyad dynasty]And-al-Rahman had extensive trade contacts and relations, which made al-Andalus[Spain] a prosperous country.He sponsored elaborate building programs, promoted agricultureand imported fuit trees, oranges, lemons, palmtrees, pomgranades, avocado's andother plants. Irrigation systems were developed. He built the Great Mosque of Cordoba,to be extended under his successors. During his reign [and that of his successors], there was a great religious tolerance, althoug a special tribute taxhad to be paid by Christians and Jews. From a ruling point of view also was ''clever'', that he founded astanding army, consisted of mainly Berbers from North Africa, whoprobably would be more loyal than the local populace..... So Abd-al-Rahman I introduced a propsperous trade, street-lighting,libraries, built started the Great Mosque of Cordoba..And then to realize, that at the same time, the Anglo-Saxon[pre-English] Kings lived in wooden castles..... VEUROPE SHOULD SAY TO THE MOORS:''THANK YOU''THE CIVILIZATION THE MOORS BROUGHT TO EUROPETHE TRANSMISSION OF THE GREEK CLASSICS/INTRODUCTION TO THE RENAISSANCETWO CULTURE BOOSTSTHE FALL OF ALEXANDRIATHE FALL OF TOLEDOWithout the Moorish conquest of al-Andalus [Spain]the Renaissance  would not be possible, or far, far later! I state that boldly, because there is apparent proof for.To say it shortly:There were two boosts of civilization, which both were of thehighest importance to Europe.The first boost of civilization, from which Europe benefited,was the fall of Alexandria in 641, when the muslim conquerorswere confronted with the riches of the Greek classics, towhich they added their own knowledge.They translatedthe Greek texts in Arabic, brought them via Northern Africanconquests through North Africa, eventually,to Spain. Especially Cordoba and Toledo were great centres of culture, visitedby many European scholars. Don't wipe out the transmission of Greek learningvia the University of Fez [oldest University in the world] The second boost of civilization was the fall of Toledo, conqueredby the christian King Alfonso VI of Castile. The rich knowledge of the Greek claasics and the added Arab knowledgecame out in the open for a great number of European scholars,muslims, Jews and christians worked together [Yeah, it was realteamwork!] to translate texts, there was a great mutual exchange,a great reliigious tolerance and a great boost of knowledge.THANKS TO THE MOORISH INVADERSWho brought Greek classics, enlarged with rich Arabic knowledge,from North-Africa to al-Andalus, sponsored this knowlegdeinto flourishing culture cities like Cordoba and Toledo,giving European scholars the opportunity to renew theirknowledge of the Greek classics. And eventually, this great knowledge was brought to Italy,and from Italy on, the Renaissancew began to flow, somecenturies later. Readers, look at the Renaissance not as a new European basedbirth, but as a continuation of an intellectual movement,which had been nourished centuries eralier, by muslims!I point vehemently on this, because it is often negllected inhistory! VIEUROPE SHOULD SAY TO THE MOORS:''THANK YOU''THE CIVILIZATION THE MOORS BROUGHT TO EUROPEMUSLIM SCIENCE AND OTHER INVENTIONSI have written about the muslim transmissionof the Greek classics to Europe, by the Moorishconquest of Spain, with added muslim-Arab knowledge.But not to be overlooked and highly important is theSCIENCE which was brought to and giiven to Europe.The Moors brought to Spain sciences like medical science, astromony, Chemistry,Mathematics, Geography as Philosophy [Greek-muslim influence] It was a transmission from ancient Eastern [Persian etc] civilizations, toGreek, to Arabic, with Arabic additions.Because the Arabs were not mere transmittors of Greek texts and knowledge,but built forth on Greek knowledge, with their own views.Algebra, a subdivision of Mathematics, is an Arabic word, like many Spanish words, beginning with al[the]. The numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 en o areArabic numerals [ciphers] The word ''cipher'' is an Arabic word. Paper [originally from China] was introduced and the Moorishrulers built paperfactories.As was mentioned before:At its height, Córdoba, the heart of Moorish territory in Spain, was the most modern city in Europe. The streets were well-paved, with raised sidewalks for pedestrians. During the night, ten miles of streets were well illuminated by lamps. (This was hundreds of years before there was a paved street in Paris or a street lamp in London.) Cordoba had 900 public baths. Education was universal in Moorish Spain, available to all, while in Christian Europe ninety-nine percent of the population were illiterate, and even kings could neither read nor write.Only the clergy could. And of course the Moorish-muslim-Arab civilization had beeninfluenced by older cultures and civilizations, as always is the case.In this case, old civilizations from China, India and even theBablylonians!But it is also to be remembered, that the Greek civilization,which brought forth the Greek classics, also had stronginfluence from Egypt, Phoeninians and so on.VIIEUROPE SHOULD SAY TO THE MOORS:''THANK YOU''THE CIVILIZATION THE MOORS BROUGHT TO EUROPETHE TROUBADOURS/A ROMANTIC STORYAt the cradle of the Western concept of romantic love,the Troubadour culture, lay the Moorish culture!It is a fantastic and thrilling story about transmissionof the Moorish culture to Europe!LISTEN TO THE STORY.....At the Moorish Court, there were siniging slave girls[a less pretty side of Moorish rule....], who were trainedin singing, intellectual conversation and more skills.When William VIII, Duke of Acquitaine  sieged the cityBarbastro , to help the christian King Ramiro I of Aragon in his war against the Moors and they succeeded, he tookas prisoners and war conquest, 100 singing slave girlsto France.....When he died, his son and heir, William IX ''inherited''those girls and became the first troubadour! VIIWHEN THE MOORS RULED IN EUROPETHE MOORISH RULE/DECLINE AND FALLBut nothing lasts forever!After the flourishing period of Abd-al-Rahman III [a descendant from Abd-al-Rahman I, the royalfugitive from Damascus, who founded the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus/Spain], who built a magnificentpalace called Medinat Azahara  and who proclaimed himself ascaliph  [thus officially cutting all ties with the AbassidCaliphate, which came into power by massacringnearly all ancestors of abd-al-Rahman III, except his ancestorAbd-al-Rahman I!], the rule of Abdal-Rahman and descendants was called''the Caliphate of Cordoba ] , the Moorish rule deteriorated.There were internal troubles, [within the royal family,withlocal muslim rulers] and the Christian kingdoms in the North of Spain advanced, wagingwar on the Moorish rulers. As one of the reasons of the decline of theCaliphate of Cordoba [from Abd-al-Rahman III, former it was'the Emirate of Cordoba, founded by Abd-al-Rahman I] ,is mentioned in the documentary of historian BettanyHughes ''When the Moors ruled in Europe'' Namely, that Abd-al-Rahman III neglected themilitary defence and had no standingarmy.Therefore he had to rely on mercenaries [who had theirown ambtions, this is an addition of Astrid Essed] Be as it may, after internal trouble within the royalfamily and with as well muslim rulers, as the Christiankingdoms in Northern Spain, the Caliphate ofCordoba fell in 1031  and desintegrated in smallmuslim kingdoms, taifa's See under note 133 a survey of the rulers of the Emirateof Cordoba and the Caliphate of Cordoba, from the sameUmayyad family, except for the fact, that Abd-al-Rahman assumedthe title of Caliph [as mentioned above]Interesting fact''According to historians, the emirs and caliphs comprising the Umayyad dynasty in Al-Andalus were the sons of concubine slaves (almost all Iberians from the north of the peninsula). ..... THE BEGINNING OF THE END/TAIFA'S/RECONQUISTA/THE KINGDOM OF GRANADASo after nearly 300 years, the Emirate/Caliphate of Cordobacame to an end.Founded in 756 by the fugitive Umayyad prince Abd-al-Rahmanafter the massacre of his royal family in Damascus with hisdescendant Abd-al-Rahman III proclaiming himself tocaliph [in 929], this impressive reign came to an end in 1031. The end of an epoch!.The fall of Moorish civilization in al-Andalus [Moorish Spain] wasabout to begin.TAIFA'S/RECONQUISTA/THE BEGINNING OF THE CRUSADESThe great Reign of Cordoba desintegrated in isolated city States,the socalled Taifa's  and in the North of al-Andalus [where fromthe beginning there were strongholds of Christian kingdoms, which survivedpartially thanks to their mountainous strongholds], christiantroops flooded over al-Andalus, waging a war of scorched earth.Following that, the desintegrated muslim territories became tributaryStates to the christian Kingdoms [on the blackmail principle: ''I will not destroy your land, ifyou pay me''] Historians tell us, that for one century [the 11th], due tothis tribute [blackmail] system, the whole christian Spainlived at the expense of muslim Spain! So:From the 11 untill the 14th century [ultimately ending with the fall of the Kingdom of Granada in the end of the 15th century],al-Andalus was under christian attack, the socalled Reconquista a desasterous war of destruction, but also [in modern terms] a warof liberation against the Moorish occupation!Ironically enough:When the tensions between christians and muslims [keepin mind, that m,any ethnic Spanish people, former Visigoths,were conversed to Islam too!] grew nearly unbearable, the greatflow of civilization took place, after the conquest of Toledo!THE CRUSADES!/READERS!It is also very important you keep in mind, that the christian attackson al-Andalus, after the crashing of the Kingdom of Cordoba,coincided with the beginning of the Crusades, in 1095.From that flow of religious wars on the Holy Land, the Reconquistaderived the justification for the attacks, enjoying the approvalof the Pope. HELP OF MAROCCO/THE ALMORAVIDSAL-ANDALUS CRUSHED BETWEEN TO EXTREMESTo fight against the christian invaders [or liberation fighters,you may choose, readers], the weak desintegrated city states[after the fall of the Kingdom of Cordoba, you remember?],asked help from North-Africa, coming from troopsfrom Morocco.They were nomads from the deserts, newly conversed tothe Islam, with a fearful fighting reputation, the socalledAlmoravids. But except for their fighting spirit, they were religiousfundamentalist, who didn't like the al-Andalus society at all!They were suspicious of the scientific collaboration betweenchristians, Jews and muslims and wanted to ''purify''the Islam, bringing back ''basic Islamic values'', as they saw it.Soon, the remaining rulers of Al-Andalus felt crushed betweenthe christian invaders of the North and the Almoravid helpersfrom the South.The al-Andalus society desintegrated further in corruptionand confusion.Christian mercenaries would fight on both sides.There came a situation of variying alliances, on both sides anda powerful christian King in the North would give militaryaid to a weak muslim King, in exchange for.......tributes again.Al-Andalus was extorted further......See under note 145 an overview of the main Christian andMoorish Kingdoms in al-Andalus.SWAN SONG/LAST STRONGHOLD/THE KINGDOM OF GRANADADesintegration, desintegration, desintegration......In 1236 Cordoba, the ancient capital of al-Andalus,fell, followed by Valencia and Sevilla. Untill in 1250, only the Kingdom of Granada survived! And despite of the fact, that it was a weak Kingdom, withinternal strife and factually a tributary State of the christianKingdoms in the North , it held its ground untill it wasconquered in 1492 by the reyes catolicos, Ferdinand and Isabella.Aftermath.....As all ''aftermaths'', the aftermath was dramatic, resulting in thethourough and ultimate expulsion of the whole Muslimpopulation of al-Andalus.The whole ''Moorish'' population......Also the Jewish population was expelled....As you see, I have put Moorish between ''You know whyAnd why it is so ironic?Because most of those expelled muslims were ethnic Spanishpeople [descended from the old Visigoths etc], who had beenconversed to Islam, ...... But whoever they were, a human tragedy, the greatestethnic cleansing operation in Europe. So:This was the end of the 700 Moorish rule in al-Andalus[Muslim Spain], bringing great civilization to al-Andalus, from the fallof Alexandria in 641, which opened the Greek classics forthe muslim Arab conquerors, translating them in Arabic and added Indian/Persian/Arab and otherEastern knowledge, and ultimately brought those wisdomsto al-Andalus [Spain]To the fall of Toledo [in 1085, reconquered by the christian armies],which opened the Greek-Arab-Eastern wisdom to theEuropean scholars, laying the foundation forthe Renaissance. I REPEAT AND REPEAT THIS ARAB TRANSMISSION OFCIVILIZATION TO EUROPE, BECAUSE IT IS SO OFTENNEGLECTED!END OF THE JOURNEYReaders!I have travelled with you to the past again!This time not to Medieval England of the Wars of theRoses , but to al-Andalus, Medieval Spain, ruledby the Moors, who brought a high civilization to Europe.Direct cause:A silly remark of Kathryn Warner in her [appreciated byme, make no mistake!] Blog ''EdwardthesecondBlogspot'',about the impossibility of ''Arabic features'' in Queen Isabellaof France, wife to King Edward II and mother of King Edward III.See for my comment on her remarks, direct belowBut that matters not, because it gave me the opportunity tomake this historical trip with you, from 2017 to al-Andalus[711-1492], from the great Arabic Muslim Caliphate, throughthe lands of North Africa, to Spain and the culturalinfluence on the rest of Europe, leading to theRenaissance.It was my pleasure to share this with you.I hope you enjoyed it as I did.I will travel with you to the past another time again.Thanks for accompanying me.You were nice companions!Astrid EssedMY COMMENT ON KATHRYN WARNEREDWARDTHESECONDBLOGSPOTEDWARD II: BOOK REVIEW: ISABELLA AND THE STRANGEDEATH OF EDWARD II23 JUNE 2013http://edwardthesecond.blogspo t.nl/2013/06/book-review- isabella-and-strange-death. htmlISABELLA'S ARABIC FEATURES, NOT UNLIKELY SINCEHER FATHER'S AND MOTHER'S SPANISH DESCENTDear Mrs WarnerYou wrote:'''The chroniclers attest to her loveliness, to her beautiful blonde hair, which she inherited from her father, Philip le Bel, and her slightly arabic [sic] features from her mother Johanna of Navarre''......''The colour of Isabella's hair is not stated anywhere; neither are her 'slightly arabic', written with a small 'a' for some weird reason, features, whatever 'slightly Arabic features' may be and how they came to exist in a woman, Joan of Navarre, who was of mostly French and northern European, partly Spanish, origin. ''I couldn't disagree with you more:Because, since Isabella's mother, Joan of Navarre, is partly ofSpanish descent, it is highly likely, she could have inheritedslightly arabic features.As a Medieval historian you know, that the Moors ruled Spainfrom 711 untill 1492 and it is impossible, that there is no mixtureof [arabic/Berber] DNA between the original [Visigoth]Spanish populations and the Moors, with such a long a ruling period.Besides, scientific researchs have confirmed itSee''
- The Spanish population may harbor some African-related admixture representing a fourth wave of migration into Europe, but affecting Spain much more than the other groups. The Spanish population shows an African admixture of 14.8% (12.6% Mozabite and 2.2% Mbuti/Yoruba), confirming that gene flow from Sub-Saharan or North African populations has occurred in the Spanish sample.''
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ African_admixture_in_EuropeBesides:Isabella could have inherited the arabic features also fromher father's side, since Philip IV of France's mother was a Spanish princess, Isabella of Aragon.Kind greetings/Astrid Essed/The Netherlands
- The Spanish population may harbor some African-related admixture representing a fourth wave of migration into Europe, but affecting Spain much more than the other groups. The Spanish population shows an African admixture of 14.8% (12.6% Mozabite and 2.2% Mbuti/Yoruba), confirming that gene flow from Sub-Saharan or North African populations has occurred in the Spanish sample.''
SEE FOR NOTES